This note was reviewed and approved for currency by the Author in September 2018.
Without the virtually free services of nature like clean air and water, humans would not last long. Natural systems can be incorporated in existing urban structures or spaces to add public amenity, mitigate the heat island effect, reduce pollution, add oxygen, and ensure water, electricity and food security in urban areas. There are many eco-solutions that could radically reduce resource consumption and pollution and even provide surplus ecosystem services in the built environment at little or no operational cost, if adequately supported by design.
This paper is the second of a two part paper and provides examples of building services that can be supplemented by natural systems to, for example, reduce energy and greenhouse gas emissions.